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Irony is a concept describing a technique or situation, usually literary, by which a meaning is conveyed that is in opposition to the literal meaning of the words used or which is not in accordance with what is expected. It can be used in many ways and is common in literature and all forms of entertainment media. It can be found in everyday situations and can be accidental or deliberately constructed. The use of irony lies in the human ability to discern the deeper meaning behind the words or other mechanism used to convey the contradiction.
When found in literature and other forms of media and communication, irony can be used in a number of ways. The most basic form in written works is a simple statement that implies a meaning that contradicts the true meaning of the actual words used. This type relies on the reader's ability to infer the hidden meaning, which is usually aided by the careful selection of specific words that in the larger context of the overall work, alert the reader to their true meaning. Used this way, irony often results in sarcasm. This type may be used in expository or descriptive writing, or used in dialogue by characters in fictional works.
Characters in fictional works, either written or in other forms, such as theater and television, are often placed in situations where their actions or those of others result in an outcome that is the opposite of what was desired. This version, called situational irony, is used in both comic and dramatic works and can be used to create situations of great humor or tragedy. The humor and tragedy usually come at the expense of the character who is the object of the ironic situation.
Dramatic irony, which is also used in all kinds of fictional works, arises when the character is unaware of facts or situations which are known to the reader or viewer. The character acts in a manner in which they would not normally behave if they were aware of this information. In many cases, the character eventually becomes aware of this withheld or hidden information, creating a conflict of some type. This is not always the case however, as the irony of the situation is generally aimed at the audience, not the character.
When it seems that fate, or some unseen force, such as God or others, conspire to manipulate situations and events simply to confound characters in a fictional work, this is referred to as cosmic irony, or irony of fate. This type illustrates the incongruity of outcomes with the intentions or actions of the characters. It is similar to the situational type, but is often presented in such a way that the characters feel as though they were the victims of some kind of plot or joke by forces unknown.
Another type of irony, attributed to the philosopher Socrates, is used to bait an opponent in a debate into showing his own ignorance or shortcomings. Called Socratic irony, this is done by feigning ignorance of the subject in order to encourage the other party to expound on the subject, exposing their lack of knowledge or faulty thinking. This kind is often employed in fiction as well, most famously in detective and mystery works where the detective employs this tactic to trick a criminal into either directly or indirectly incriminating themselves.