The Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded every year by the Royal Swedish Academy to an author who has published a work deemed outstanding by a committee appointed by the academy. The author must be nominated by someone who has been asked by the academy to act as a nominee. The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel to recognize achievements in various arts and sciences on an annual basis. The first Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded in 1901 to Sully Prudhomme for his works of poetry.
The selection process is considered rigorous and begins at least a year before the prize is awarded in October or November. Nominations are collected from around 1,000 people who have been asked to submit their recommendations to the committee. The winner is chosen by committee from around 100 to 250 nominees. The committee responsible for selection consists of past Nobel Prize winners, academics, acclaimed authors, members of the academy and others. The committee begins its deliberations in February and its recommendation for a winner is sent to the academy in September or October.
The winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded a diploma, a medal and a cash award, as well as the opportunity to lecture at the academy. The majority of the winners have been nominated for novels and works of poetry, though essayists and playwrights have also been honored. It is generally accepted that an author is nominated for his entire body of work, though several winners were honored for single works of great renown.
There has been much controversy surrounding the Nobel Prize for Literature. Criteria have unofficially changed several times over the years. Some people believe the works of the winners should champion an ideal of the human condition, while others believe literary merit and more contemporary ideals should be the criteria. This has caused many of the great authors of the 20th century — such as James Joyce, Leo Tolstoy, Marcel Proust and Anton Chekov — to be left off the list, while several authors of lesser renown, such as Dario Fo and Herta Muller, have been included.
The Nobel Prize for Literature was not intended to take into account politics or affiliation when it was established; however, controversy in regards to politics has followed the prize throughout its history. There have been instances in which winners have declined to accept the prize, in spite of its prestige and large cash award. Many respected authors have been passed over for the award, and speculation and rumors have abounded that they were passed over for their politics or beliefs.