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“Switcheroo” is an English slang expression dating to at least the 1930s. It refers to the practice of causing someone to expect one result, but then substituting an unexpected and often opposite result instead. In modern times, the word is mainly used in connection with comedy because of its whimsical sound. Much modern comedy works by providing unexpected words, images, or results. “Switcheroo” has also used been used in connection with vaudeville and stage magic and as a metaphor for certain criminal schemes.
The word “switcheroo” is a humorous variation on the word “switch,” which means the same thing. A noun, it is often used in the same sense as “con” or “scam,” in phrases such as “pulled a switcheroo” or “the old switcheroo.” It is sometimes used to describe an actual or metaphorical swindle, such as a Ponzi scheme or another financial con game. In a more lighthearted sense, it describes a clever reversal, such as a sleight-of-hand magic trick.
“Switcheroo” is sometimes used to describe famous swindles such as the “shell game.” In this common street scam, a hustler takes bets on the position of a bean that is hidden under one of several cups. If an audience member can guess the bean’s correct position, he or she wins the bet. The hustler, however, often changes the bean’s position, or removes the bean entirely, through misdirection and sleight of hand. “Shell game” has itself become a metaphor for unethical business practices such as real estate and financial frauds.
In comedy, “switcheroo” means to set an audience up for one result, only to substitute an amusing alternative. Sometimes this involves reversing the meaning of a common phrase for comic effect. In Woody Allen’s early career as a stage comedian, he was famous for his use of “switcheroos.” For example, he claimed to carry a bullet in his breast pocket in case someone threw a Bible at him. This runs counter to the dramatic cliché in which a person is saved from a gunshot when a strategically placed Bible stops the bullet.