A learning disability is any of a number of conditions that make the process of learning difficult because of the way the brain processes information. In most people with a learning disability, it becomes recognizable sometime during the early years of school. A learning disability does affect the way a person learns, but it does not mean he or she cannot learn.
There are numerous types of learning disabilities that may affect speech, reading, writing, memorization, organization of information, and even motor skills. Many people with a learning disability may have difficulty focusing or remembering what they have read or heard. The impact on these areas of learning can make school frustrating for children and can even make work difficult for adults who have not learned to manage a learning disability.
The brain processes information in pieces in different sections and transmits processed information to other parts of the brain. A person with a learning disability has a brain that either processes or transmits information differently than the average, or "normal" brain. Brain function can cause a person with a learning disability to have difficulty processing or transmitting written, verbal, or auditory information in the standard way others are used to.
Public schools estimate that roughly 10% of students have some type of learning disability. In contrast to students whose school performance is poor based on demographics, economics, or cultural influence, a learning disability is not caused by environment, but is a neurobiological disorder. In most places, students who are affected by a learning disability are entitled to certain considerations and rights by law in order to improve their experience in school and receive an equal opportunity for education.
A learning disability is typically diagnosed through a series of cognitive tests administered by a specialist, such as a psychologist, therapist, or other medical professional. Early detection and intervention by parents, medical professionals, and school personnel greatly improve a child's chances of learning success. A person with a learning disability simply learns differently and once their learning abilities and limitations are understood, it is easier for the student and teacher to engage in the learning process.
It can be difficult to identify a learning disability in young children because many parts of their brain are still developing and just beginning to engage in certain processes, but by age 7 or so it becomes easier to detect. If a child is struggling in school because of difficulty concentrating, problems writing, difficulty understanding written material, or similar problems, his or her parents should talk to the child's teachers and pediatrician. These professionals will be able to refer the parent to specialists who can diagnose and work with the child to overcome his or her difficulties.
That said, being diagnosed with a learning disability does not spell the end of a student’s academic career. There are a wide variety of support options available to students, from institutional aid (which includes extended test periods or personal aides) to tutoring. The latter can be an especially good way to help students; whether the student needs literature tutoring or geometry tutoring, one-on-one time can help them get the individual attention that they may be lacking due to their disability.