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What Is a Tragicomedy?

G. Wiesen
G. Wiesen

A "tragicomedy" is a dramatic work that does not necessarily fit properly into either a tragic or comedic framework, or which combines elements of each. In its original meaning, it typically referred to plays and similar works that included both gods and kings along with slaves and peasants in a setting that fit neither. The term later came to refer to plays that did not have the amount of death necessary for a tragedy, but which could not entirely be categorized as a comedy either. Throughout the 20th Century, however, the tragicomedy was popularized as a work that combines both elements in a more succinct way through events that are, at best, bittersweet.

Early usage of the term "tragicomedy" stemmed from the drama of ancient Greece. In that context, the term was used to refer to works that included both "high" and "low" types of characters. These roles were usually reserved for certain works and were often mutually exclusive. A single play written as a tragicomedy might include the gods, who usually appeared only with each other and rulers, alongside slaves and peasants. These types of works were often criticized and viewed as experimental or as failures of drama.

Tragicomedy combines elements of both tragedy and comedy.
Tragicomedy combines elements of both tragedy and comedy.

During the Renaissance, and afterward, the idea of the tragicomedy was altered to indicate a dramatic work that did not quite fit into either of the two major categories. A tragedy is typically considered to be a work with serious and dramatic elements, which ultimately ends in the death of one or more characters. In contrast, a comedy is a play that typically includes lighter elements, and more importantly ends without death and often features a wedding at the conclusion.

A tragicomedy might include themes around death and funerals.
A tragicomedy might include themes around death and funerals.

A tragicomedy became works there were fairly serious in tone, sometimes with funny moments, which might seem like they were going to result in death, but did not. This might be due to a sudden twist of fate or change in the story. They could be very serious works, but the lack of death ultimately precluded them from categorization as tragedies. These types of plays ultimately evolved into works of melodrama, which continue into the present.

In the 20th Century, however, the idea of the tragicomedy was once again revisited. Playwrights such as Samuel Beckett and Tom Stoppard created works that included both comedy and tragedy, often intertwined. These plays had themes that were quite serious, sometimes tragic, but would present them through absurdity and comedy. This type of tragicomedy is often intended as a way to illustrate the dual nature of reality, in which both extremes coexist, often within the same moment.

Discussion Comments


@literally45-- Right. For Greeks, tragicomedy was a serious drama with a happy ending. Tragicomedy for Italian and English writers, on the other hand, was a little different. They leaned towards romance, like many of Shakespeare's works.

I think the best description I've heard of tragicomedy is a work that "contains too little tragedy to be a tragedy and too little comedy to be a comedy."


@fify-- There really isn't a single and rigid description of what a tragicomedy entails. It can be a tragedy with some comedy or a comedy with some tragedy. Sometimes the tragedy can just be an unhappy ending or the death of a main character. Basically, tragicomedy refers to any work that has both elements. The elements of tragedy and comedy can be used in different ways.

For example, recently I saw a tragicomedy film. The film is mostly a comedy but it is considered to be tragicomedy because of the tragic ending. It was about a man who had an accident and developed memory loss. At the end of the film, he forgot everything including himself and ended up getting killed. But the person who killed him also died, in a rather ironic way, by slipping on a banana peel.


I think the meaning of tragicomedy has changed a little bit since the time of the Greeks. Now, it's not really about people of different social statuses or morbidity. Now, tragicomedy is more about irony. There is of course tragedy and also comedy but neither really dominate the art. I might be wrong but as far as I understand, Greek tragicomedy was darker, more depressive. I'm not an expert on this topic though, so I would love to hear what other people think about this.

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    • Tragicomedy combines elements of both tragedy and comedy.
      By: Andrey Burmakin
      Tragicomedy combines elements of both tragedy and comedy.
    • A tragicomedy might include themes around death and funerals.
      By: Robert Hoetink
      A tragicomedy might include themes around death and funerals.