Zen poetry combines the literary practice of poetry with the philosophical principles of Zen Buddhism. As such, a Zen poem makes a philosophical statement or observation through the use of descriptive words. This type of poetry does, however, have its own unique features. It focuses on attaining moments of enlightenment — or true clarity of mind — by emphasizing singular experiences. Problems and questions are abundant in Zen poetry, as are short phrases and nature-focused imagery.
Like many poems, Zen poetry is generally composed of lines of verse that are sometimes grouped into collections known as stanzas. The stanzas often range from two to three lines, contributing to the overall shortness of many Zen poems. Unlike other forms of poetry, Zen poets typically do not use a rhyme scheme but rather implement non-rhyming free verse.
A Zen poet finds his or her inspiration in the spiritual practice of Zen Buddhism. This life outlook emphasizes the mind and its quest for full understanding. Zen Buddhists often practice a contemplative state called meditation in order to achieve enlightenment. In the Buddhist faith, enlightenment is the state of ultimate awareness of the world and the unifying knowledge contained within it.
This philosophy is reflected in Zen poetry in a few ways. For one, meditation is meant as a time of reflection in which problems and questions are presented to the mind. Therefore, in a good percentage of Zen poems the poet presents one or more questions or problems — also called koans — early in the poem. Since the achievement of enlightenment often arrives as a sudden burst of insight, the poet may attempt to mimic this process by jarring the reader’s mind with a shocking answer or solution to the problem.
Zen practitioners also believe momentary experiences in everyday life are one of the best means of achieving understanding. As such, Zen poetry relies on the natural and the mundane in using images and comparative descriptions. This reflects the silent sitting and seeming "doing nothing" associated with meditation. The poetry is also comparatively short, which is further symbolic of a snapshot of experience.
In the Zen philosophy, words themselves are not important but should rather be seen as a tool for reaching a clear emotional and intellectual state. Overly complicated phrases, words, and images thus have no place in Zen poetry. Neither does an overt emphasis on meanings or themes. This outlook may be one reason why poetry in Zen form is often viewed as nonsensical to an outside observer, particularly in the ultra-short haiku form.