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The idiom "bring home the bacon" is a term that usually has relevance to the individual or individuals within a household who are actively working outside the home and bring home some sort of income for their efforts. The origin of this fanciful English saying is somewhat debated, with some sources tracing the origin back to 12th century writings. "Bring home the bacon" has continued to be an idiomatic expression that is well understood in a number of English-speaking cultures, even as many households since the latter part of the 20th century function with the aid of at least two income earners.
One of the more common claimed origins for the expression dates back to the early years of the 12th century, and has to do with the gift of a side of bacon to a young couple who impressed a prominent local clergyperson with their deep devotion to one another. There is likely some truth to this legend, especially since this type of tradition is still alive and well in the area of Great Dunmow, Essex in the United Kingdom.
The use of the specific phrase "bring home the bacon" is somewhat more complicated, with the phrase appearing more commonly in 20th century publications, beginning with newspaper accounts connected with professional boxing matches. For this reason, there is some merit in seeing this particular idiomatic expression as being a product of the United States in the early years of that century, although there may be an underlying basis for older references to bacon that relate to money and livelihood.
Within the context of the prevailing culture during the first half of the 20th century, the term was often used as one means of delineating the responsibilities of each partner in a marriage. Men were expected to be the breadwinners and bring home the bacon, while women had the duty of taking care of home and hearth, making prudent use of the income generated by the husband to create a comfortable and pleasant home for that husband.
As gender roles and the structure of households became more varied during the second half of the 20th century, it become more common for more than one individual in the household to generate income and bring home the bacon. For this reason, the task of financially funding a household is rarely seen as the responsibility of any one individual, but the combined effort of two or more residents of the home. This has also led to shifts in understanding who is chiefly responsible for tasks such as the upkeep of the home and how each parent is involved in the act of raising children.