How Different are Ancient Hebrew and Modern Hebrew?
Ancient Hebrew, also known as Classical or Biblical Hebrew, differs noticeably, though not drastically, from Modern Hebrew. The differences are mainly in the areas of grammar, phonology, and vocabulary, and speakers of Modern Hebrew can typically read an ancient text without difficulty. This form comprises a number of dialects spoken in ancient Israel between the 10th century BCE and the early 4th century CE. In the modern era, it is mostly a literary and liturgical language only. Modern Hebrew, the national language of modern-day Israel, is a secular spoken language.
Ancient Hebrew is a much older language than English, it emerged around 12th Century BC. However due to exile of Jews and the movement of the Jewish diaspora to different parts of the world, it gradually fell out of use as an everyday language. It was mostly only used in religious practice and sometimes in writing academic documents and books. So when Hebrew revived as an everyday language in the form of Modern Hebrew with the establishment of the Israeli state, it naturally changed and adapted to the modern era.
In the Middle Ages, a variety of pronunciation styles for Ancient Hebrew had developed due to the wide dispersal of the Jewish population. The two major branches of phonological styles were Sephardic Hebrew, spoken in the Iberian Peninsula and countries of the former Ottoman Empire, and Ashkenazi Hebrew, spoken in Central and Eastern Europe. The two pronunciation styles were influenced by regional spoken Jewish languages, Ladino and Yiddish respectively.
Modern Hebrew phonology is based on that of Sephardic Hebrew, while the Yemenite dialect that developed in the Middle Ages is probably closest to the phonology of Ancient Hebrew. The differences in syntax or grammar between ancient and modern forms are based largely on influence from Ashkenazi Hebrew and Yiddish. In addition, the modern Hebrew language incorporated many loanwords and neologisms necessary to discuss things that did not exist in Ancient Hebrew.
The ancient form is still used by speakers in literary and liturgical contexts and is taught in Israel's public schools. Elements of it are also used from time to time in spoken Modern Hebrew and in the Israeli media.
"due to exile of Jews [...], it gradually fell out of use as an everyday language."
If you are referring to the exile from the Holy Land in the 1st century (or later), it never happened. It was a christian antisemitic legend: the exile was regarded as a punishment from god for the death of Jesus.
Thus, Hebrew certainly fell out of use there because of the Greek and Roman cultural influence and the Roman political domination.
How much of ancient Hebrew is actually understood today?
Modern Hebrew differs from classical Hebrew about as much as today's English and Shakespeare. Yes an Israeli can read the ancient texts, but with serious effort and some help.
Actually, modern Hebrew is a combination of Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew, along with newer terms. I don't believe that it's a revival of Yiddish, but simply a revival of the liturgical language of the Jewish people into the common everyday language of Israel.
Israeli Hebrew is based almost entirely on Ashkenazic Hebrew, not Sephardic Hebrew.
Many Chassidim in Israel (where I live) speak Hebrew out in public all the time. I've heard Hasidic children in playgrounds running around and playing and shouting in Hebrew much more than Yiddish.
Yiddish is both Germanic and Semitic. Classical Yiddish is filled with Hebrew and Aramaic words, and lots of Hebrew sentence structure even with the German vocabulary. Mostly German, in a way, but also very Hebrew in its classical form. The Jews of Germany did not tend to speak Yiddish, though, unlike those Jews living in the mostly Slavic lands to the east.
Modern Hebrew is not a revival of Yiddish, which was alive and well and thriving as modern Hebrew came into daily use again. A modern Hebrew speaker can, with a little learning, read most of the Tanakh just fine. Many immigrants read Tanakh only after studying modern Hebrew, and picking up the differences informally. A good Hebrew-Hebrew dictionary stating the period--biblical, post-biblical, mishnaic, etc. helps.
Ben-Yehuda was the single most famous modernizer of Hebrew. But bringing back Hebrew into daily use was a vast Jewish national effort. Note that Hebrew was far from dead, even if the majority of Jews did not use it as a secular language, and that it was modernized, not created.
I think your mistaken reletomp, Yiddish and Hebrew are completely different languages. Yiddish is a form of German (my grandparents called it a German slang) written in Hebrew letters and was only used among Ashkenazi Jews.
Modern Hebrew is the ancient hebrew which I believe was redesigned and given a more concrete grammatical structure by linguists working for the israeli government.
Modern Hebrew is not revival of ancient hebrew that died 2000 years ago. It is a revival of Yiddish language using ancient Hebrew lexicon.
Many Hasidim (those that follow the Hasidic or Chasidic religious movement within Judaism) believe Hebrew is too sacred for use in casual discussion. Rather, it is reserved for religious discussion, while Yiddish or Russian, or some other language is used for everyday conversation.
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