Theologians study religion and share their faith with others. They teach others about the various tenants of their religion, and help them understand how to practice and share their faith. Those involved in historical theology, on the other hand, are faced with a very different focus and responsibility. They study the history of their religion, and attempt to link tenets and beliefs with historical evidence and events. They explore the why and when of religion, rather than the how, as they explore the origins and background behind particular teachings.
Historical theology combines elements of religious study with other scientific and social science fields. These include anthropology and social science, or the study of people and cultures, as well as archeology. These professionals also study history in the form of both religious and nonreligious texts that make help them gain insight into how past events shaped modern beliefs. By combining theories and practices from each of these fields, those interested in historical theology can learn about their faith within the context of history and science.
This field of study helps to refine religious teaching, and explain why people of a certain faith accept certain tenets and reject others. Historical theology also explains the history of different doctrines, and investigates how they developed and changed over time to reflect changing knowledge or events. This field studies the people who shaped modern religion, and explores how they had the impact they did. It also examines alternative theories, or different explanations and interpretations of current beliefs of each religion.
People interested in historical theology do not necessarily have to be religious themselves. Traditional religious schools offer programs in this field, but some mainstream colleges do too. Someone interested in this field can choose to study a specific faith or many religions to see how they relate to one another in a historical context.
Historical theology may require people to separate long-held faith from fact, or at least to keep an open mind and a balanced view to new information. Research in historical theology has the potential to change the researcher's views on his faith, and may even change the way others view certain aspects of their religion. A piece of archaeological evidence or a newly discovered document could shed new light into faith. While this evidence may affirm long-held beliefs, it could also disprove them, so historical theology requires scholars to examine this evidence with an unbiased eye.